In this "How to Install a Water Softener" article, I will show you how, you can easily install a water softener, in just a few hours, by following these simple and easy steps. You can use copper  or Pex piping for this installation, however, in this article, I will focus on a copper pipe installation.


Unpacking Your New Water Softener:

 

New Water Softeners - how to install a water softener

Fig. 1

Remove all instructions and parts as well as packing material from the inside of the water softener


Shutting Off The Water

Water meter and shut off - how to install a water softener
Figure 2

Shut off the main water supply which is located on or by your water meter (Fig. 2)


Turning Off Your Water Heater

Water Heater Shut Off  - how to install a water softener
Fig: 3

Turn off your water heater by turning off the switch on an electrical hot water tank and by putting the unit on "pilot" for a gas water heater (Fig. 3)

Turning Off your water heater is a precaution, since you will be tying in the cold water line fro your new softener, into the cold water (inlet) line of your water heater, you will want to avoid any excess pressure build up in your water heater.


Open All Your Water Faucets

Turning Off Water Facet  - how to install a water softener

Figure 4

Open all the faucets in your house and leave them open for now (Fig. 4)  (In order to drain the water lines)


Finding A Suitable Location For Your Water Softener

Now you will want to move your new water softener to a suitable location located within an assessable  floor drain and level it, if necessary shim the unit in order to make it as level as possible

You will also want to be close to a 110 volt electrical outlet that will provide power to your new unit

Next, insert the rubber grommet into the overflow hole on the back of the unit

Insert the drain elbow through the rubber grommet


Installing the Bypass Valve

Next, install the bypass valve (Figure 5), it may be necessary to install the O-rings onto the bypass valve it they were not factory installed.  It’s a good idea to apply a little silicone grease to the O-rings if before completing this installation.

Water Softener by pass valve  - how to install a water softener
Figure 5

Depending on the model of water softener you are installing, the bypass valve can be installed in the up Fig. 5 (pipes access at the top), or in the down (pipe access from the floor) position. You may also be installing a water softener that has the water inlet and outlet coming straight out the back.  You will need to adjust the direction of your lines accordingly

Next, install the retainer clips as shown in Fig. 5, also see your installation manual, directions may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, so be sure to follow the directions for your particular brand of water softener

Next, attached the overflow hose to the overflow drain elbow and attached the hose clamp provide with your install package


 Installing the Floor Drain

Now run this line to a floor drain, nearest to the water softener. In some municipalities, it is necessary to provide a 2" air gap (Figure 6) between the drain line and the drain itself.  This is a simple air gap drain that you can make using PVC fittings and PVC Glue.  Fig. 6A shows a simple way to attach the drain hose to a brick and place it over the drain in order to provide the required air gap.

Fig. 6 Simple Air Gap Drain - how to install a water softener       Indirect plumbing drain  - how to install a water softener        Indirect drain - how to install a water softener

Above Images are all examples of an indirect drain, notice the air gap.

 

Air Gap Drain  - how to install a water softener
Fig. 6a Air Gap Alternative

 


Connecting the Water Lines

Next, we will connect the water softener to the ¾” cold water supply line

[stextbox id="alert" caption="Warning! "]Since this is a copper pipe water softener installation. You should be careful not to solder the copper pipe adapters while they are attached to the water softener, the heat will melt the adapters [/stextbox]

 

  •  You can connect the water softener using a direct copper connection to the softener.  To do this you will need to use two 1” x ¾” NPT (National Pipe Thread) female adapters

Copper female adapter
Fig 6B Copper Female Adapter

 

[stextbox id="warning"] Tip:  If you have difficulty finding a 1” x ¾” female adapter, you can use a 1” x 1” female adapter and a 1” x ¾” reducer soldered together to create the same thing. [/stextbox]

 

  •  You will need to solder (sweat) the 1” adapter, to your ¾” copper line prior to attaching it to your new water softener.  Do this for both the inlet and the outlet line.
  •  Attach the lines to your water softener.
  • Once this has been done, you will need to attach these lines  to the other end of the  water supply line.  It may be necessary to use a ¾” coupling in order to achieve this. If you’re not sure how to solder  you can check out this great video by Richard Trethewey of This Old House or you can use compression or push on fittings that don't need to be soldered (sweated).

Softener connection schematic  - how to install a water softener
Fig 6C Typical water softener installation

 

[stextbox id="warning"]Tip:    If you plan to solder all the connections to your new water softener, it is advisable to put in a ¾” union joint, somewhere close to the softener , this way you will be able to detach the unit from the supply lines should the need ever arise. Eg., you decide to move the unit to a new location or the unit requires servicing. This step is optional.  [/stextbox]

 

 

[stextbox id="custom"]Recommendation:  I recommend the use of a  water softener installation kit that consists two 18" long flexible connectors with a 3/4" Quick Connect end, for the copper pipe hook up and a 1" threaded female end for hooking up to the water softener.  You can purchase this online for around $40.00 or from your local hardware or home improvement center  and it will save you a lot time and additional work.  In addition, it will make it nice and easy to disconnect your water softener from the water lines should you ever have to. This will also eliminate the need for any type of union joint as previously mentioned. Go to Amazon  parts # 560372.[/stextbox]

 

Stainless Flex Line
Fig 6C   Flexible Push Connection SS Line

If you are not using the recommended quick connect installation kit you can still use two stainless flex lines approx 15" to 18" long, to do the job.  These normally come with two female ends.  One end 3/4" for hooking onto the  3/4" copper pipes and the other 1" female end for hooking to the water softener.  This type of hook up requires either two 3/4" male copper  connectors to be soldered on to  the copper pipes or  the use of  two 3/4"  male "Push Connectors" for a faster installation.


 Building Your Own Bypass

I know that some of you out there will want to install your own additional bypass valves. If you would like to do this, it's just a matter of installing three (3) additional shut off valves in the system. See Fig. 7 for details. Again, these can be soldered (sweated) or you can use push on fittings.  All of these parts are available online from Amazon.com, amazon part # BA-485B - 34.

by pass walves - how to install a water softener
By pass valve arrangement Fig. 7

 


Connecting the Drain Hose

Next, connect the drain hose to the valve drain elbow using the clamp provided with the unit. Please keep in mind that this drain hose is a pressurized and should not extend any longer than 30 ft., nor any more than 8 ft high.  This line should drain to either an indirect  floor drain or a laundry tub. See Fig 6 & 6A for an indirect drain line attachment.

Some municipalities do not allow this drain to be inserted directly into a drain without providing an air gap, this is to prevent the backflow of sewer water back into the unit. See Fig 6 and 6A as well as my article on “How to Properly Vent a Drain Line” for more information.

 

[stextbox id="warning"]Tip: If your drain hose is not long enough It is not necessary to use an extension piece  that looks exactly like the one that came with the unit, you can use any type of hose design for water as long as the interior dimension is the same.  I have seen many people going from store to store looking for a water softener drain house that looks identical to the one that came with their unit. This is just a waste of time and effort “ANY HOSE WITH THE SAME INTERIOR DEMESION WILL WORK JUST FINE”.[/stextbox]

 

 

[stextbox id="alert"]Warning!   You should install the ground clamp that came with your water softener. Failure to do this, if you are using metal pipes can cause serious injuries and in some case even death.[/stextbox]


 

Installing the Ground Clamp

Water pipe ground  - how to install a water softener
Ground Clamp Fig. 8

Grounding Fig. 8 & 9 is necessary whenever two copper or metal pipes in the same system are broken up by some kind of appliance hook up or other means that prevents the continuous flow of an electrical charge through the pipes. This happens when a water softener is installed or when a water heater is installed. The pipes coming in and out of a water softener must have some type of metal connection, that allows the transfer of an electrical current from one side of the pipe to the other.  Same goes for a water heater, the cold water line going into the water heater needs to be connected to the hot water line coming out of the water heater by some king of external metal wire or clamp connection.

These rules can vary from one municipality to another, especially when the plastic or Pex piping is involved, be sure to check with your local building inspector for the proper installation guidelines for your area.

Electrical Grounding Wire  - how to install a water softener
Grounding Wire Fig. 9

 


Checking for Leaks

You’re almost done. Slowly open the water supply and shut off the faucets that you had previously opened.  Now would be a good time to check for any leaks.  Should you find a leak it will be necessary to either tighten the joint or re-solder after turning the water back off and re-opening some of the faucets to reduce the back pressure and re-drain the lines.

Assuming all is well, you can now re-open the inlet valve to your water heater  and turn off the faucets that you had previously opened in your home and slowly re-open the bypass valve to the softener.  Double check for leaks.


 Sanitizing

New Water Softeners come from the factory clean and ready to use, but it is still a good idea to sanitize the unit before putting it into service in your home.  This is very simple to do. Before you add salt to the unit, open the salt tank lid and pour in approximately 3 gals. (12L) of cold water, which is approximately 2 to 3 inches deep in the bottom of the tank. Now, open the brine well, cover and pour in 3 oz. (6 tablespoons) of unscented household bleach and replace the cover.  Make sure the bypass valve is open or in the "service" position and start the recharge process.

Once the recharge cycle is completed, you will need to rinse the unit of any bleach. Open the nearest cold water faucet downstream from the unit and let the water run for approx 20 minutes. This should take care of the rinsing and make the unit ready for use.


 Adding Salt  

You should add approximately 3 gallons of water to the salt storage tank before adding any salt. Then you should pour in 3 to 4 bags of salt enough to bring the salt level up to approximately (2/3) two thirds, of the tank.


 Programming Your Water Softener

Next, plug the unit’s transformer into a 110-volt outlet and begin the programming. Follow the programming instructions provided by your water softener manufacturer.

You will also want to sanitize the unit prior to using it. See your owner’s manual and follow the instructions for sanitizing.


[stextbox id="warning"]

Tip: Now would be a good time to go through your house opening and closing all your water valves to get rid of any trapped air in the system. This will prevent your facets from spitting and sputtering the next you go to use them.  

 

[/stextbox]

 

  • It may take a few days to replace the water in your water tank and water lines with newly softened water but once this has been done you should begin to enjoy the luxury of soft, smooth water.

 


 Things you will need to - Install A Water Softener

Copper Pipe Cutter

             Pipe cutter


 

Copper Pipe, copper tubing  - how to install a water softener

  • ¾” Copper Tubing (Length to be determined)
  • ¾” copper elbows (Quantity to be determined)
  • Two 1” x 3/4" female (threaded internally) NPT connectors, copper or brass
  • Above available from your local Hardware Store

 

Whole House Sediment Filter
Sediment Filter

Sediment Filter (Optional)

 

 

 


 

Stainless Flex Line
Stainless Flex Line

 

       Stainless Steel water softener installation line requires two lines. (Recommended)

 

 


 

Propane Torch
Propane Torch

 

 

 


 

Roll of Lead-free Solder
Solder

 

 

Lead-Free Solder

 


 

Solder Paste
Solder Paste

 

 

Soldering Flux (paste)

 


 

Solder paste applicator
Paste Applicator

 

Solder paste applicators

 

 


 

Additional Resources For This Project

solder pipe

 

     How to Solder Copper Pipes by Richard Trethewey of This Old House

 

 


 

14 thoughts on “How to Install a Water Softener”

  1. Hi Yvan, thank you for this installation guide.

    It is important to install a softener system if you have hard water. Hard water makes it difficult for detergent to suds, can stain your sinks and fixtures, and can even corrode your pipes, causing them to degrade and require replacement. This is why people just tend to find water softeners such a useful technology to have in their homes. It is not just a luxury anymore, it’s a necessity for each and every home. It keeps you and your family safe from sickness and you just can not put a price on that.

  2. Appreciating the time and energy you put into your website and in depth information you provided own how to install a water softner. It’s good to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same outdated rehashed information. Fantastic read! and great step by step guide. I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m adding your RSS feeds to my Google account.

    1. i just installed whirlpool 40000 Grain , i used Pex Pipe and Pex connector,my part coast about $165.00 . We u do it yourself ,it save 50% of the total cost. And now works perfect.

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  4. I needed to thank you for this fantastic read!! I definitely enjoyed every little bit of it.
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  5. we just bought a water softner and were planning on
    installing it soon when someone mentioned to my husband that we have to change all our pipes to copper..which will cost alot..
    Is this true?
    If it is..we may have to return it

    1. Hi Roxane,
      Thanks for contacting me, I don’t know why anyone would tell you that you have to change your pipes to copper, that is simply not true. There are many homes today that have all plastic (Pex) , PVC or CPVC which in many case is easier to install than copper, especially if you use push on fittings like gator bite or shark bite. Let me know if you need more information. I will be happy to reply.
      Yvan
      Trusted E Blogs

  6. we just bought a water softner and were planning on
    installing it soon when someone mentioned to my husband that we have to change all our pipes to copper..which will cost alot..
    Is this true?

  7. Talking regarding the topic “How to Install a Water Softener Trusted E Blogs” is interesting on http://www.trustedeblogs.com. I commonly utilize ‘flames caulk’ in order to caulk around floor penetrations as part of structures and have utilized it through sealing flue pipe also. It is usually red as part of color.

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